Green Sleeves

Seven decades of LP covers in Ireland

Curated by Dr Ciarán Swan and Niall McCormack

This exhibition examines the Irish-printed album cover. Included album covers were all designed or printed in Ireland. The work was completed for Irish groups, who worked at home or abroad, as well as albums from abroad referencing Ireland or Irishness. The collection dates from the late 1950s to the present day, and covers a wide range of musical and non-musical genres.

Arising from the increase in popularity of the vinyl record, the Irish print industry saw an increase in companies solely devoted to album covers in the 1960s. This business flourished for two decades before declining along with the vinyl record in the 1980s.

Yet even with the decline in production and sales, the vinyl record and the album cover have both persisted, and have seen a revival of late. Despite selling in much smaller numbers than its heyday, the format has proven remarkably resilient and album covers continue to be designed in Ireland.

This exhibition is divided into five broad categories. These categories are not entirely chronological, but seek to make connections between disparate genres of music, drawing out commonalities of musical approach or sensibility. They provide a framing device for the album sleeves in the exhibition. Rather than supplying definitive answers these categories instead propose questions about genre, identity, authenticity within broader societal and cultural dynamics and how these work with and against those creating the music and the imagery of the album sleeve. As the exhibition is focused on sleeves printed in Ireland it does not include some Irish artists signed to international labels.


The album cover developed first as a means of protecting and promoting the various record formats, whether 7 inch single, EP or LP record. As the nature of albums changed so too did the album covers. For example, the compilation album, an album of songs not intended to be a single work, arrived in the 1950s.  The concept album, a collection of albums expressing a theme or idea, appeared afterwards in the late 1960s.

Records inside album covers were usually held within sleeves – originally these were generic paper or plastic covers used to avoid scratches. By the 1970s however they evolved to specially designed printed sleeves, which would contain additional information and song lyrics.

Each iteration brought with it different requirements as well as cover sizes. As time progressed the demands of musicians and record labels saw considerable experimentation in the form of the cover itself. For example, gatefold was employed – an oversized cover folded to the record’s standard size, along with other innovations. This gave more area to experiment with artwork and text. The cover became a piece of art and design in its own right.

Take me to the Full Introduction

Subsections: IntroductionThe Vinyl RecordThe Album CoverPrinting albums in Ireland
Vinyl cover of Dublin Wedding; BTP Mobile Unit Ltd; Private recording on acetate; design: N/A; Print: BSG Limited, Dublin; 10"
Vinyl cover for Amhráin as Árainn agus as Conamara; Treasa Ní Mhiolláin and Micheál Seo; Gael-Linn (1973); design: Bill Bolger; Print: Earlsfort Press

Traditional & Classical

This section draws together a range of different musical areas, including ceili, traditional, folk and classical. These areas embody certain cultural connotations such as authenticity, longevity and prestige. As can be seen from the examples selected there are clear efforts to develop distinct visual styles in each. Yet also evident is an effort on the part of some of the styles to appropriate visual signification from other areas, as with traditional music labels which consciously sought to adopt the stature of classical and jazz through the use of modernist photography and design.

Take me to Traditional and Classical

Subsections: 1950sCeiliClassicalFolkTraditional Music and ModernityModern TraditionalismVoyagers and Heritage

Political, Religious & Cultural Identity

This section considers a range of areas where identity is key to the album sleeves selected. The vinyl record was used as a means of communicating political, historical, religious and educational content in a period prior to the internet and where television was more limited in its reach and scope. RTÉ was at the forefront of providing these materials in this format but religious organisations were also involved in this process. The vinyl record was also seen as a useful tool to promote the Irish language and reframe it as modern and relevant. In sum these sleeves provide a snapshot of the concerns of the state and society and what messages they sought to promote within the broader society.

Take me to Political, Religious & Cultural Identity

Subsections: PoliticalReligiousTradition and Religious IdentityLanguage EducationComedy
Vinyl cover of Maidin Luan Cincíse; Albert Fry; Gael-Linn (1969); Design: Liam Miller agus John McCarthy (Jim Maguire); Print: Dolmen Press Ltd
Vinyl cover of Bachelors’ Girls ; The Bachelors; Decca (1966); Design: Decca Publicity Art Department ; Print: Clout & Baker Ltd. (England)


This section presents a range of popular genres from the showbands of the 1960s to country & Irish. The visual approaches found here range from hurriedly produced design through to sophisticated imagery. The concentration on groups and solo artists is evident, with the singers and musicians promoted strongly as individuals in their own right, as much or more so than the music. Also included is a small selection of commercial albums, used to promote companies, products or tourism. Notable is the emphasis on the interior of the Irish pub as a centre of everyday life and culture.

Take me to Popular

Subsections: ShowbandsPopCountry & IrishBluesLive & FestivalsCommercialTranquility

Fusion, Alternative & Experimental

This section offers an overview of a variety of underground or alternative musical styles that consciously set themselves apart from popular music. Notable are the albums produced by Horslips, which, across a decade long career, merged traditional with psychedelic rock and later new wave in striking visual formulations, that mirrored the evolving style of their music. U2, whose success belied their post-punk roots, spawned a series of emulators and critiques, both musically and visually. Also of significance here are small labels in the late 1970s and 1980s who, drawing on the inspiration of punk rock and new wave, adopted a DIY attitude and aesthetic.

Take me to Fusion, Alternative & Experimental

Subsections: HorslipsProg and ExperimentalPunkU2Early 80s IndieMid-80s
Vinyl cover of Happy To Meet … Sorry To Part Horslips; Mercury (1972); design: Charles O’Connor / Photos: Ian Finlay; Art: Eric Bannister
Vinyl cover of Ephemera; Little Green Cars; Glassnote (2016); Design: Slater Design / Mosaics by Patrick Scott / Photography by Matthew Thompson

1990s & After: The Fall, Rise & Return of Vinyl

The 1990s saw the rapid decline of vinyl as the dominant format for music. Manufacture of records in Ireland ceased in 1992 with the closure of Carlton Productions in Dublin. Dance and indie labels both continued to use the format for much of the decade, sourcing manufacturing and printing in the UK and EU. The turn of the new millennium marked the low point for the vinyl album but the last decade has seen a significant revival with manufacturing again taking place on the island. A selection of vibrant contemporary album sleeves demonstrates the quality and diversity of Irish music and design.

Take me to 1990s and After: The Fall, Rise and Return of Vinyl

Subsections: 1990s Indie1990s–2000s DanceContemporary

In their Own Words: Printers and Designers

Printers and designers share their insights into the process of creating record sleeves. With contributions from photographer Hugo McGuinness, illustrator Pat Musick and designers Steve Averill and Peter Wildbur as well as printers Michael Lynam, Alf McCormack, Michael Murphy and Billy Ryan.

Take me to In their Own Words: Printers and Designers

Vinyl cover of Boy; U2; Island (1980); design: Steve Averill / Photograph by Hugo McGuinness; Print: N/A
Vinyl cover for Rí Na bPíobairí; Leo Rowsome; Claddagh (1969); design: Jeffrey Craig; Print: Dublin Print And Paper Company

Sleeve Notes

Some stories from behind the covers including: the punk guitarist who also worked for the Garda Representative Association; the unexpected English warrior on the Wolfe Tones cover; the album promoting Wavin pipes; the black-and-yellow cover that came out bright blue; the print blocks kept in a safe…

Take me to the Sleeve Notes


Curators Dr Ciarán Swan and Niall McCormack

Installation Team (physical exhibition) Andrew Clancy, Ger Clancy and Nicola Zeidler

Editor Catherine McGuinness

Project Management Carla Marrinan Funder, National Print Museum

Print McGowans Digital Print / Smart Printing

Design Dr Ciarán Swan and Niall McCormack

Original Sponsorship MCD Productions

Special Thanks Curatorial Committee, National Print Museum

Web layout iCulture

If you would like to contact the Green Sleeves team for any  reason, please click here. We look forward to hearing from you.


Alan Kinsella, Billy Ryan, Brian Hanley, Dara de Faoite, Dave Clifford, David Donohue, Eamonn Doyle, Eddie McGinn, Fergus White, Franc Myles, Garry O’Neill, Gavin Beattie, Iain Slater, Louise Gaffney, Joe Mooney, Mary Ann Bolger, Matthew Bolger & Emelie Lidström, Michael Knowles, Michael O’Connor, Neil Moxham, Niall McCormack, Niall Sweeney, Pat Musick, Paul O’Brien, Peter Maybury, Peter Reddy, Peter Toomey, Roísín Sheerin, Ruan Van Vliet, Robin Fuller, Sean Sills, Simon Roche, Stephen Kiernan, Steve Doogan and Terry Nealon


Alf McCormack, Bernie Furlong, Billy Ryan, Clare Bell, Eamon Carr, Freddie Snowe, Gerry O’Boyle, Harry Havelin, Hugo McGuinness, Irish Photo Archive, Jason O’Toole, Joe Mooney, John Swift, Lynn Sanders, Maeve Robinson and Deirdre White of Media and Photography Department, St. Kevin’s College, Crumlin with Sarah Nolan and Damien Long, Mary Ann Bolger, Michael Lynam, Michael Murphy, Michael O’Connor, National Print Museum Staff, Neil Moxham, Noreen O’Donnell, Niall McGuirk, Pat Musick, Peter Wildbur, Stan Erraught, Steve Averill, Steven Weekes, Students of Dublin Institute of Technology, Tim O’Neill, Tob Swift and Typography Ireland

Vinyl cover of The Weird, Weird, Weird, World of Guru Weirdbrain; Various; Hotwire (1986); Design: Steve Averill; Print: N/A
Vinyl cover of The Chocolate Biscuit Conspiracy; The Golden Horde and Robert Anton Wilson; Hotwire (1985); Design: Des O’Byrne / Photos: Conor Horgan, Debbie Schow